Indonesia is in a Landfill Emergency
Many Landfills (Final Processing Sites) in Indonesia are threatened that they can no longer operate because they are full. Compared to Indonesia’s low recycling rate, the amount of residual waste (waste that is difficult to recycle) that ends up in the landfill is considered unbalanced. This condition causes excessive waste accumulation in the landfill.
According to data from Sustainable Waste Indonesia (SWI), of the 65 million tons of waste that Indonesians produce every day, only 7% of the waste is recycled, while the remaining 69% ends up in the landfill. Data from SWI also shows that less than 10% of plastic waste is recycled and the remaining 50% ends up in the landfill.
Given the time it takes for plastics to decompose naturally in nature (for example, styrofoam plastic takes approximately 500 years to decompose naturally), it is clear that the accumulation of waste in landfills is a problem that we must immediately address.
Continuing from the article in 2019: Indonesia’s Waste Emergency: Indonesia’s Landfills are on the Verge of Overcapacity, it is better if we take a peek at the latest news about the condition of landfills in Indonesia.
Latest News on Landfills in Indonesia
The Landslide of Cipeucang Landfill in South Tangerang
In the early hours of May 22, 2020, a part of the mountain of garbage at the Cipeucang Landfill in South Tangerang, West Java, landslides partly due to the parapet that can no longer hold the weight of the garbage.
The landslide of the Cipeucang landfill rubbish covered part of the Cisadane River, which is only 23 km away from the source of the Bendungan Pintu Air 10 (a dam) which is also where the Aetra Tangerang’s 4 drinking water intake points for is located. (Read the Handling of the Impact of the Landslide of the Cipeucang TPA, South Tangerang, Indonesia)
It was reported from Kompas.com that the process of dredging garbage from the Cisadane River spreads an unpleasant odor which was quite disturbing, so the South Tangerang City Fire Service had to spray chemicals during the process.
According to the latest news in June 2020 from pikiranrakyat.com, the landslide of the Cipeucang TPA is being processed by the South Tangerang District Prosecutor after a report of alleged misuse of funds for the construction of the parapet collapsed even though it had not been a year since it was built.
Since it was inaugurated 8 years ago, the landslide of the Cipeucang Landfill in May 2020 is said to be not the first time. The dividing wall of the Cipeucang Landfill was also broken and caused an avalanche of garbage in April 2019.
South Tangerang Environmental Agency Secretary, Yepi Suherman, told merdeka.com that the Cipeucang Landfill, which has an area of 2.5 hectares, is already very overloaded.
There is a plan to divert waste to the Nambo Landfill in Bogor, which is located more than 60 km from the Cipeucang Landfill, but currently, the transfer process is declared not ready to operate.
The Continuation of the Lulut-Nambo Modern Landfill Project, Bogor, is Still Questionable
Standing on an area of 55 hectares, the Lulut-Nambo Regional Waste Management and Final Processing Site (TPPAS) in Bogor is predicted to be one of the most modern waste management facilities in Indonesia that uses Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT).
It is used to convert waste into Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), or an alternative fuel to replace coal, is expected to be a solution for the accumulation of residual waste in the landfill.
After being adrift for 15 years, the Lulut-Nambo Regional Waste Management and Final Processing Site (TPPAS) construction project was reopened and inaugurated again by the Governor of West Java, Ridwan Kamil, in 2018.
Previously, the Lulut-Nambo Regional Waste Management and Final Processing Site (TPPAS) was only intended to process and hold the waste of local villages.
However, in the process, Bogor City, Depok City, and South Tangerang City stated that they participated in its utilization so that the Lulut-Nambo Regional Waste Management and Final Processing Site (TPPAS) was planned to receive 1,800 tons of waste per day.
Having never opened to operate, the continuation of the Lulut-Nambo Regional Waste Management and Final Processing Site (TPPAS) project in 2020 has begun to be questioned.
The situation was getting less favorable when the Cipeucang Landfill landslide and Cipayung Landfill began to overload, so it immediately needed a better waste management facility as a solution.
In addition, it was quoted from the statement by the deputy mayor of Bogor, Dedi A. Rachim to republika.co.id in July 2020, that for waste management at the Lulut-Nambo TPPAS, each region will be asked to pay IDR 225,000 per 1 ton of waste.
Meanwhile, the city of Bogor alone produces 600 tons of waste per day, so it is feared that it will only burden the regional budget.
As an illustration, the Bantar Gebang Integrated Waste Processing Site (TPST) in East Bekasi, West Java, which has an area of 110 hectares, receives 6,000-7,500 tons of waste from DKI Jakarta residents per day.
The Polemic of the Cost of Moving Waste to the Legok Nangka Modern Landfill
Like Lulut-Nambo Regional Waste Management and Final Processing Site (TPPAS), Legok Nangka Regional Waste Management and Final Processing Site (TPPAS), which stands on an area of 78.1 hectares in Nagreg, West Java, was originally intended to be a solution for the accumulation of residual waste at the TPA.
Targeted to operate at the latest in 2022, Legok Nangka Regional Waste Management and Final Processing Site (TPPAS) will later become a waste destination for residents of Bandung Raya after Sari Mukti Landfill is closed due to overcapacity.
For its own waste management, quoted from West Java Regional Secretary Iwa Karniwa on Kompas.com in 2019, Legok Nangka would not apply RDF technology such as Lulut-Nambo Regional Waste Management and Final Processing Site (TPPAS) due to the final result of RDF which is the raw material for cement. The absence of a nearby cement factory is considered to be a flaw in the plan.
Therefore, egok Nangka Regional Waste Management and Final Processing Site (TPPAS) will use Waste-to-Energy technology to convert waste into electricity.
Due to the change in the concept of waste management, the tipping fee for waste management at Legok Nangka Regional Waste Management and Final Processing Site (TPPAS) will be Rp. 380,000 per tonne with a 30% subsidy by the Bandung government while the Governor of West Java, Ridwan Kamil, is still in office.
This fee is still considered expensive by the managers of several landfills, for example, West Bandung Regency, which finally plans to open their own landfill because the tipping fee for TPA Legok Nangka can be up to 8 times the initial budget for local waste management.
The new landfill for West Bandung Regency, which is planned to replace the full Sarimukti Landfill, will still be located in the Sarimukti area.
The Waste of Kebon Kongok Landfill in Mataram is Processed into Fuel by The Jeranjang Power Plan
Quoted from lombokpost in August 2020, the Jeranjang Power Plan (PLTU) will continually utilize waste at Kebon Kongok Landfill, Mataram, as a fuel mixture to produce electricity through the Co Firing process.
In the Co Firing process, the Kebon Kongok Landfill waste is first formed into Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) pellets directly at the site. Waste that has been sorted will be given bio activator liquid first through a process to accelerate the decomposition/fermentation of waste (peyeumisasi) in the process of converting waste into electrical energy.
After that, the waste will be formed into dry pellets which can be directly used as fuel at the Jeranjang Power Plan.
Waste management using RDF technology at Kebon Kongok Landfill, Mataram, West Lombok, is considered a fairly successful residue reduction effort.
Several Indonesian Landfills that are in Overcapacity Emergency
Overcapacity Landfill Problem Solution
There are still many people who interpret Landfill as a Final Waste Disposal Place, when in fact Landfill/TPA stands for Final Waste Processing Site (read the different functions of TPA, TPS, TPS 3R and TPST).
Republic of Indonesia Government Regulation no. 81 of 2012 which regulates the Management of Household Waste and Household-like Waste (see also the list of waste management laws and regulations in Indonesia) states that the Final Processing Site, hereinafter referred to as TPA, is a place to process and return waste to environmental media.
However, opening a new land or finding a new waste processing technology is of course not enough, let alone just correcting people’s understanding of the true function of the landfill.
Managing Waste Requires Costs
From several landfill developments in 2020, we can see that many efforts to manage and reduce residual waste in landfills are hampered due to investment and funding problems.
There are costs involved in constructing a safe waste management facility, there are costs involved in ensuring residual waste does not accumulate and fill our landfills, there are costs involved in moving waste from one place to another.
Of course, we can reduce all these costs. We can avoid all these problems if we sort and reduce waste production from the start. So that all of our energy, time, and costs can be transferred to sectors that are more important.
But if we still produce waste at the current rate (for example, Jakarta residents produce 7500 tonnes of waste per day) with a very low recycling rate, sooner or later, we must immediately set aside the cost of proper waste management to keep our environment safe and healthy.
Because clearing new land for the landfill cannot be considered as a long-term sustainable solution, considering that there are health and psychological risks that can affect residents around the landfill and many other risks.
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