Behavior Change Strategy and Playbook for Waste Management by Kemenkomarves in cooperation with World Bank

The Waste Management Playbook is brought to you by The Coordinating Ministry of Maritime and Investment Affairs (Kemenkomarves – Kementerian Koordinasi Bidang Kemaritiman dan Investasi) along with the World Bank and is supported by Waste4Change.

It consists of 4 books which are:

1 Behavior Change Strategy and Playbook

3 Roadmap Guides for Creating Behavior Change Campaign.

Waste Management Playbook by The Coordinating Ministry of Maritime and Investment Affairs along with the World Bank and supported by Waste4Change

Building on the principles of behavior change theory, the goal of this report and the Playbook is to provide a strategic approach to behavior change efforts aimed at reducing marine plastic pollution in Indonesia.

Who Can Benefit from This Playbook?

This Playbook is expected to serve as an initial guide for various stakeholders, namely

  • national and local governments
  • private enterprises
  • NGOs
  • Multilateral institutions

to formulate campaigns aimed at the general public, either as a part of a large waste management/marine debris initiative or as a singular effort.

Behaviour Change 

The Waste Management Playbook focuses on behaviour change, namely:

  1. littering,
  2. excessive use of single-use plastics, and
  3. mixed waste disposal.
Ilustrasi perilaku membuang sampah sembarangan. Sumber:
An example of littering. Please don’t do this. Source:

Why those three behaviours? This is because prior research in the material flow and leakage of plastic packaging (particularly PET bottles) in Indonesia and on the discourse around waste from news highlights the three target behaviour as key to addressing marine plastic pollution.

Contoh perilaku membuang sampah sembarangan ke sungai. Sumber:
Example of disposing mixed waste straight into the river, which will eventually pollute the ocean. Source:

Thus, by targeting behaviours associated with each of these leakage points, this strategy aims at reducing the flow of plastics into the environment, especially the ocean.

Gerakan Indonesia Bersih

One of the main reasons behind the making of the Waste Management Playbook is to support the notion of Gerakan Indonesia Bersih (GIB), which is a national identity for all clean-up and waste management initiatives.

The three mascots of the Gerakan Indonesia Bersih

As part of the government’s efforts and commitment in reducing the negative effects of marine debris, Gerakan Indonesia Bersih aims to encourage clean and healthy living behaviours among the Indonesians, as well as to improve people’s perception towards waste management.

In addition, GIB has two key messages that they want to convey:

“Let’s start caring and save Indonesia’s ocean and ecosystem from waste” , and

“Be the agent of change for Indonesia Bersih”

Indonesia’s Plan of Action on Marine Plastic Debris 

Conducting behaviour change is the first of the overall five strategies in the National Action Plan on Marine Plastic Debris that has started since 2017, which aims to achieve 70% of plastic reduction by the year 2025.

National Action Plan in Marine Debris Plastic Pollution

The remaining four strategies are (2) reducing land-based leakage, (3) reducing sea-based leakage, (4) reducing plastic production and use, and finally (5) enhancing funding mechanisms, policy reform, as well as law enforcement.

The Playbook’s Source of Information

There are four main activities that are conducted in order to determine the key elements for the devleopment of this playbook, and they are

1.Mapping of Existing Initiatives

Aims to identify past and ongoing behaviour change efforts in Indonesia. It is also a helpful exercise to understand the focus of the campaign, outreach, types of audience, number of stakeholders engaged, their activities, as well as their impacts in addressing the Stop Littering, Reduced Plastic Usage, and Sorting and Recycling Behaviors.

2.  Key Experts Insights

Expert opinions from prominent figures or role models who have a long history in the field of waste reduction and waste management can serve as a valuable input in formulating the contents of these Playbooks.

3. Cultural Insights

Cultural insights are necessary to understand the context of the Indonesian audience in terms of the values, culture as well as the perceptions that they held, which ultimately determines their behaviour patterns.

From the online and social media analysis, critical touchpoints of engagement were identified to determine the types of content that would encourage and “move” the audience to change their behaviour.

4. Field Study 

Contoh Studi Lapangan yang Dilakukan
Examples of the Results of the Field Study

Field study is conducted in order to ensure the prevaililing attitudes towards the Stop Littering and Reduced Plastic Usage behaviours, as well as to identify critical areas for conducting pilot projects.

To illustrate, traditional markets and riversides/waterways were identified as hotspots for littering, whereas foodcourts and supermarkets were targeted for reduced plastic usage behaviours.

Multiple Cooperations

The Waste Management Playbook that was initiated by the World Bank together with Indonesia’s Coordinating Ministry of Maritime and Investment Affairs is the results of cooperations from multiple partners, which are

  • GA Circular, a research and strategy firm specialising in waste management and recycling
  • Waste4Change, a social entrepreneur that provides responsible waste management services, which also consists of Solid Waste Management Research (SWMR),
  • ZigZag, an integrated marketing service company
  •, an AI-based platform that processes data on human behaviors across all digital platforms

Download the Waste Management Playbook for FREE

Indonesian Version: 

Buku Panduan Strategi Perubahan Perilaku

Buku Panduan Peta Jalan untuk Menyusun Kampanye Perubahan Perilaku Buang Sampah Sembarangan

Buku Panduan Peta Jalan untuk Menyusun Kampanye Perubahan Perilaku Pengurangan Penggunaan Plastik

Buku Panduan Peta Jalan untuk Menyusun Kampanye Perubahan Perilaku Pemilahan dan Daur Ulang Sampah 

English Version: 

Behavior Change Strategy and Playbook

Roadmap For Creating Behaviour Change Campaign: Stop Littering 

Roadmap For Creating Behaviour Change Campaign: Reduce Plastic Usage

Roadmap For Creating Behaviour Change Campaign: Sorting and Recycling

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